Civil War Original Period Items

1864 CIVIL WAR Journal 29TH INDIANA CO C Pvt Silas Long DIARY Handwritten UNION

1864 CIVIL WAR Journal 29TH INDIANA CO C Pvt Silas Long DIARY Handwritten UNION
1864 CIVIL WAR Journal 29TH INDIANA CO C Pvt Silas Long DIARY Handwritten UNION
1864 CIVIL WAR Journal 29TH INDIANA CO C Pvt Silas Long DIARY Handwritten UNION
1864 CIVIL WAR Journal 29TH INDIANA CO C Pvt Silas Long DIARY Handwritten UNION
1864 CIVIL WAR Journal 29TH INDIANA CO C Pvt Silas Long DIARY Handwritten UNION
1864 CIVIL WAR Journal 29TH INDIANA CO C Pvt Silas Long DIARY Handwritten UNION
1864 CIVIL WAR Journal 29TH INDIANA CO C Pvt Silas Long DIARY Handwritten UNION
1864 CIVIL WAR Journal 29TH INDIANA CO C Pvt Silas Long DIARY Handwritten UNION
1864 CIVIL WAR Journal 29TH INDIANA CO C Pvt Silas Long DIARY Handwritten UNION
1864 CIVIL WAR Journal 29TH INDIANA CO C Pvt Silas Long DIARY Handwritten UNION
1864 CIVIL WAR Journal 29TH INDIANA CO C Pvt Silas Long DIARY Handwritten UNION
1864 CIVIL WAR Journal 29TH INDIANA CO C Pvt Silas Long DIARY Handwritten UNION

1864 CIVIL WAR Journal 29TH INDIANA CO C Pvt Silas Long DIARY Handwritten UNION
ONE OF A KIND 1864-65 FIELD CARRIED CIVIL WAR MANUSCRIPT JOURNAL. Great content including field practice, pickets, plundering in Nashville, saloon life, camp life, train raids, illnesses and deaths, hospitals, soldier's homes, rebel prisoners, Union casualties, captures and Battle at Stones River details, Wheeler's Rebel Cavalry, and more. Silas was from Medaryville, Indiana. Other names mentioned include General Dunn, General Sill, Lt Col Willich, Maj Gen D. Daily, John Daily, Sophia Long, Thomas Dunn, R. Parker, Colonel Miller, Capt S Allen and more. Measures 4.25" x 2.5".

Over 200 pages with handwriting, with 122 continuous pages written through the first half of the year, many full page and almost all in ink. In great shape, some light toning and edgewear to a few pages, some light pocket wear to the leather binding, with gilt DIARY 1864 on the front flap. And mustered in August 27, 1861. Ordered to Kentucky and joined General Rousseau at Camp Nevin October 9, 1861. Attached to Wood's Brigade, McCook's Command at Nolin, Ky.

5th Brigade, Army of the Ohio, to December, 1861. 5th Brigade, 2nd Division, Army of the Ohio, to September, 1862. 5th Brigade, 2nd Division, 1st Corps, Army of the Ohio, to November, 1862. 2nd Brigade, 2nd Division, Right Wing 14th Army Corps, Army of the Cumberland, to January, 1863. 2nd Brigade, 2nd Division, 20th Army Corps, Army of the Cumberland, to October, 1863.

1st Brigade, 1st Division, 4th Army Corps, Army of the Cumberland, to April, 1864. 1st Separate Brigade, Garrison at Chattanooga, Tenn. Of the Cumberland, to January, 1865. 2nd Brigade, 1st Separate Division, District of the Etowah, Dept.

Of the Cumberland, to May, 1865. 2nd Brigade, 2nd Separate Division, District of the Etowah, Dept. Of the Cumberland, and Dept. Of Georgia, to December, 1865. Camp at Nolin River, Ky.

Till December, 1861, and at Munfordsville, Ky. March to Bowling Green, Ky. February 14-March 3, and to Savannah, Tenn. Advance on and siege of Corinth. Pursuit to Booneville May 31-June 6.

Buell's Campaign in Northern Alabama and Middle Tennessee June to August. In pursuit of Bragg, August 21-September 26. Pursuit of Bragg into Kentucky October 1-15.

Near Clay Village October 4. Reconnoissance to Lavergue November 26-27. Duty at Nashville till December 26. Advance on Murfreesboro December 26-30.

Battle of Stone's River. December 30-31, 1862, and January 1-3, 1863. Duty at Murfreesboro till June. Action at Triune June 11. Middle Tennessee or Tullahoma Campaign June 23-July 7. Occupation of Middle Tennessee till August 16. Passage of the Cumberland Mountains and Tennessee River and Chickamauga Ga.

Reopening Tennessee River October 26-29. Garrison duty at Chattanooga till May, 1865. Garrison duty at Marietta and Dalton, Ga. Mustered out December 2, 1865.

Regiment lost during service 4 Officers and 56 Enlisted men killed and mortally wounded and 4 Officers and 240 Enlisted men by disease. Veteran Volunteer, December 23, 1863. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia.

"Battle of Murfreesboro" redirects here. For the earlier conflict, see First Battle of Murfreesboro. Battle of Stones River (Second Battle of Murfreesboro). Part of the American Civil War. Troops at Stones River in an 1891 illustration by Kurz and Allison. December 31, 1862 January 2, 1863. 12,906 (1,677 killed 7,543 wounded 3,686 captured/missing). 11,739 (1,294 killed 7,945 wounded 2,500 captured/missing). The Battle of Stones River or Second Battle of Murfreesboro , was fought from December 31, 1862, to January 2, 1863, in Middle Tennessee.

As the culmination of the Stones River Campaign in the Western Theater. Of the American Civil War. Of the major battles of the Civil War, Stones River had the highest percentage of casualties on both sides. Although the battle itself was inconclusive, the Union Army.

S repulse of two Confederate. Attacks and the subsequent Confederate withdrawal were a much-needed boost to Union morale after the defeat at the Battle of Fredericksburg. And it dashed Confederate aspirations for control of Middle Tennessee.

S Army of the Cumberland. On December 26, 1862, to challenge General Braxton Bragg. On December 31, each army commander planned to attack his opponent's right flank, but Bragg struck first.

A massive assault by the corps of Maj. Followed by that of Leonidas Polk.

Overran the wing commanded by Maj. A stout defense by the division of Brig. In the right center of the line prevented a total collapse and the Union assumed a tight defensive position backing up to the Nashville Turnpike.

Repeated Confederate attacks were repulsed from this concentrated line, most notably in the cedar "Round Forest" salient against the brigade of Col. Bragg attempted to continue the assault with the corps of Maj. But the troops were slow in arriving and their multiple piecemeal attacks failed. Fighting resumed on January 2, 1863, when Bragg ordered Breckinridge to assault the well-fortified Union position on a hill to the east of the Stones River. Faced with overwhelming artillery, the Confederates were repulsed with heavy losses.

Falsely believing that Rosecrans was receiving reinforcements, Bragg chose to withdraw his army on January 3 to Tullahoma, Tennessee. This caused Bragg to lose the confidence of the Army of Tennessee. Main article: Western Theater of the American Civil War. Further information: Confederate Kentucky Campaign. Western Theater: movements OctoberDecember 1862 (Stones River Campaign).

After the Battle of Perryville. On October 8, 1862, Confederate Gen. Where it was joined by Maj. S army of 10,000 on October 10. Although Bragg's newly combined force was up to 38,000 veteran troops, he made no effort to regain the initiative. The Union commander at Perryville, was equally passive and refused to attack Bragg. Frustrated with his prospects in Kentucky and low on supplies, Bragg withdrew fully from Kentucky through the Cumberland Gap. Turned northwest, and eventually stopped in Murfreesboro, Tennessee. His army, joined with Smith's Army of Kentucky. And together renamed the Army of Tennessee.

As of November 20, took up a defensive position northwest of the city along the West Fork of the Stones River. During a visit by Confederate President. On December 16, Bragg was ordered to send the infantry division of Maj.

To assist in the defense of Vicksburg. The loss of Stevenson's 7,500 men would be sorely felt in the coming battle.

Bragg reorganized his army, and Kirby Smith left for East Tennessee. Bragg commanded two corps, under Maj. And a cavalry command under Brig. Bragg had to deal with a command problem that became typical for him during the war: a virtual revolt of his senior generals, who petitioned Jefferson Davis to relieve him in favor of Gen. The commander of all armies in the Western Theater.

Davis refused to relieve either Bragg or the rebellious generals. On the Union side, President. Had become frustrated with Buell's passivity and replaced him with Maj. Victor of the recent battles of Iuka.

Rosecrans moved his XIV Corps. Which was soon after designated the Army of the Cumberland. And was warned by Washington.

That he too would be replaced if he did not move aggressively against Bragg and occupy eastern Tennessee. However, Rosecrans took ample time to reorganize and train his forces (particularly his cavalry) and resupply his army. He did not begin his march in pursuit of Bragg until December 26. While Rosecrans was preparing in Nashville, Bragg ordered Col. To move north with his cavalry and operate along Rosecrans's lines of communications, to prevent him from foraging for supplies north of Nashville. At a crossing point on the Cumberland River. About 40 miles (64 km) upstream from Nashville (north of Murfreesboro) was an incident in Morgan's raid to the north, before Rosecrans had the bulk of his infantry forces on the move. The relatively small battle that followed Morgan's surprise attack was an embarrassing Union defeat, resulting in many captured Union supplies and soldiers. The Union also engaged in a strategic cavalry raid. On December 26, the day Rosecrans marched from Nashville, a small force under Brig.

Raided the upper Tennessee Valley from Manchester, Kentucky. Until January 5, Carter's men destroyed railroad bridges and fought a few skirmishes, including a serious one on December 28 at Perkins's Mill (also known as Elk Fort).

But none of the cavalry raids, Confederate or Union, had any significant effect on the Stones River Campaign. The Army of the Cumberland marched southeast the day after Christmas. In three columns, or "wings", towards Murfreesboro, and they were effectively harassed by Wheeler's Confederate cavalry along the way, which delayed their movements. Although Rosecrans had reported his army to have 81,729 effectives in Nashville, his force on the march was barely more than half of that since he needed to protect his base and supply lines from the harassment of the Confederate cavalry. The left wing of 14,500 men under Maj. Took a route that was parallel to the Nashville and Chattanooga Railroad. The right wing of 16,000 men under Maj. Marched south along the Nolensville Turnpike to Nolensville. And then eastward to Murfreesboro.

The center wing of 13,500 men under Maj. Moved south along the Wilson Turnpike and the Franklin Turnpike, parallel to the Nashville and Decatur Railroad, then eastward through Nolensville and along the same route used by Crittenden south of the Nashville and Chattanooga. A single cavalry division under Col.

John Kennett preceded each of the three columns. The separation of the wings was designed to conduct a turning movement. Against Hardee at Triune, but when the U. March began, Bragg moved Hardee back to Murfreesboro to avoid a confrontation.

Murfreesboro was a small town in the Stones River Valley, a former state capital named for a colonel. In the American Revolutionary War. All through the war it was a center for strong Confederate sentiment, and Bragg and his men were warmly welcomed and entertained during the month of December. It was located in a rich agricultural region from which Bragg planned to provision his army and a position that he intended to use to block a potential U. Hardee noted afterward that The field of battle offered no particular advantages for defense.

Despite this, Bragg was reluctant to move farther south, say to the arguably more defensible Duck River. Valley, or farther north, to Stewart's Creek, where Rosecrans thought Bragg would defend. Sensitive to the political requirements that almost no Tennessee ground be yielded to U. Control, he chose the relatively flat area northwest of the politically influential city, straddling the Stones River. Portions of the area, particularly near the intersection of the Nashville Pike and the Nashville and Chattanooga Railroad, were characterized by small but dense cedar forests, in places more impenetrable to infantry than the Wilderness of Spotsylvania.

Short limestone outcroppings, separated by narrow cracks as if rows of teeth, impeded the movement of wagons and artillery. Hardee's Corps was initially placed in Triune, about 20 miles (32 km) to the west, Polk's on the west bank of the river, and a detached division from Hardee's Corps under Maj. On the low hills east of the river. None of the troops were ordered to construct field fortifications. Limestone outcroppings in a cedar forest at Stones River National Battlefield, 2005.

Movements and positions the night of December 30 to 31. By the time Rosecrans had arrived in Murfreesboro on the evening of December 29, the Army of Tennessee had been encamped in the area for a month.

By nightfall, two thirds of Rosecrans's army was in position along the Nashville Turnpike, and by the next day Rosecrans's army numbered about 41,000 and Bragg's 35,000. The odds were closer than those figures would indicate. Bragg had the advantage of the detached, but cooperating, cavalry commands under Forrest and Morgan, who raided deeply behind Union lines while Wheeler's cavalry slowed the Union forces with hit-and-run skirmishes. Part of Rosecrans's reluctance to move from Nashville was the inexperience of his cavalry forces in comparison to their Confederate counterparts.

On December 29, Wheeler and 2,500 of his men rode completely around the Union army, destroying supply wagons and capturing reserve ammunition in Rosecrans's trains. They captured four wagon trains and 1,000 Union prisoners. On December 30, the Union force moved into line two miles (three km) northwest of Murfreesboro.

The two armies were in parallel lines, about four miles (six km) long, oriented from southwest to northeast. Was weak at the start, and Rosecrans could have attacked there when he arrived and wheeled left, around the flank and directly into the town of Murfreesboro, but he did not know the full disposition of Bragg's forces because of the skillful screening of the Confederate cavalry during the Union march. In a manner similar to the previous year's First Battle of Bull Run.

Both commanders devised similar plans for the following day: envelop the enemy's right, get into his rear, and cut him off from his base. Since both plans were the same, the victory would probably go to the side that was able to attack first. Rosecrans ordered his men to be ready to attack after breakfast, but Bragg ordered an attack at dawn.

Bragg's forces were situated with Leonidas Polk. S corps on the west side of the river, and William J. S men on the east.

He had expected Rosecrans to attack on December 30, but when that did not happen, his plan was to drive Hardee's corps and the cavalry under Brig. Deep into the Union rear. He began moving the bulk of Hardee's corps across the river to his left flank to prepare for the next morning's attack. This left Breckinridge's division in reserve on the east side of the river on the high ground.

Rosecrans intended to have Crittenden cross the river and attack the heights east of the river, which would be an excellent artillery platform to bombard the entire Confederate lines. However, Crittendenfacing Breckinridge on the Union leftfailed to notify McCook (on the Union right) of these troop movements. McCook, anticipating the next day would begin with a major attack by Crittenden, planted numerous campfires in his area, hoping to deceive the Confederates as to his strength on that flank, and to disguise the fact that his flank was not anchored on an obstacle (the nearby Overall Creek). Thomas, in the center, was ordered to make a limited attack and act as the pivot for Crittenden's wheel. The armies bivouacked only 700 yards (640 m) from each other, and their bands started a musical battle that became a non-lethal preview of the next day's events.

Northern musicians played Yankee Doodle. " and were answered by "Dixie" and " The Bonnie Blue Flag. " Finally, one band started playing " Home! And the others on both sides joined in. Thousands of Northern and Southern soldiers sang the sentimental song together across the lines.

Further information: Union order of battle. Key commanders Army of the Cumberland.

Fielded approximately 43,000 men and included three infantry army corps named Right Wing , Center and Left Wing. The Right Wing , under Maj. Brigades of BG August Willich. Brigades of BG Joshua W. First Division , MG Lovell H.

Brigades of Col Benjamin F. Second Division , BG James S. Brigades of BG James G. Third Division , BG Speed S. Brigade of Col Moses B. The Left Wing , under Maj.

First Division , BG Thomas J. Brigades of BG Milo S. Second Division , BG John M. Brigades of BG Charles Cruft. Third Division , BG Horatio P.

Brigades of Col Samuel Beatty. Fyffe, and Col Samuel W. The Cavalry Corps , under BG David S. Included 1 cavalry division (Col John Kennett): brigades of Col Robert H.

Minty and Col Lewis Zahm. Further information: Confederate order of battle. Key commanders Army of Tennessee. Fielded approximately 35,000 men and included two infantry army corps. The First Corps , under LTG Leonidas Polk.

Cheatham's Division , MG Benjamin F. Brigades of BG Daniel S. Withers' Division , MG Jones M. The Second Corps , under LTG William J. Breckinridge's Division , MG John C.

Brigades of BG Daniel W. Cleburne's Division , MG Patrick R. Brigades of BG Lucius E.

McCown's Division , MG John P. Brigades of BG Mathew D. The Cavalry Corps , BG Joseph Wheeler. , consisted of brigades under BG Joseph Wheeler. December 31, 8:00 a.

At dawn on December 31, about 6 a. Struck first, attacking the Union's right flank with the division of Maj. Before many in Union Brig. S division had finished their breakfast. This was the third major battle, after Fort Donelson.

In which an early morning attack caught a Union army by surprise. The 10,000 Confederates who massed on their left attacked in one massive wave. McCook's deceptive campfires and the relative inexperience of McCown caused his division to drift away to the left, which left a gap in the front, but the gap was filled seamlessly by the division coming up from his rear, under Maj.

These two divisions swept all resistance aside. Several artillery batteries were captured without having time to fire a shot. Johnson's division, on the right, suffered over 50% casualties. His neighboring Union division to the left, under Brig.

Was able to hold only briefly. Troops of Beatty's brigade, Van Cleve's division march to reinforce the Union right. Although meeting stiff resistance, Hardee drove the Union troops back three miles (5 km) to the railroad and the Nashville Pike by 10 a.

Where Johnson was able to rally them. Rosecrans canceled Crittenden's attack on the Confederate right, which had begun with Brig. S division crossing the river at 7 a.

And instead rushed reinforcements to his own right flank. He had been slow to recognize the threat, assuming incorrectly that McCook would be capable of turning back Hardee's assault. As Rosecrans raced across the battlefield directing units, seeming ubiquitous to his men, his uniform was covered with blood from his friend and chief of staff, Col. Beheaded by a cannonball while riding alongside.

December 31, 9:45 a. The second Confederate wave was by Polk's corps, consisting of the divisions of Maj.

What saved the Union from total destruction that morning was the foresight of Maj. (McCook's wing), who anticipated an early attack and had the troops of his division up and ready in the center of the right half of the line by 4 a.

Withers hit Sheridan's right flank first (and Davis's left) but was repulsed in three separate charges. Then Cheatham, with his reserve division, hit Sheridan's front as Cleburne struck his flank. Cheatham's assault was sluggish and piecemeal; observers claimed he had been drinking heavily and was unable to command his units effectively. While Sheridan's men slowed the enemy advance, they did it at heavy cost to themselves; all three of Sheridan's brigade commanders were killed that day, and more than one third of his men were casualties in four hours of fighting in a cedar forest surrounded on three sides that became known as The Slaughter Pen. Many of the Confederate objectives had been achieved. They had captured 28 guns and over 3,000 Union soldiers. December 31, 11:00 a. Two Confederate blunders aided Rosecrans. Breckinridge, on the east side of the river, did not realize that Crittenden's early morning attack had been withdrawn. He refused to send two brigades as reinforcements across the river to aid the main attack on the left.

When Bragg ordered him to attack to his frontso that some use could be made of his corpsBreckinridge moved forward and was embarrassed to find out that there were no Union troops opposing him. At about that time, Bragg received a false report that a strong Union force was moving south along the Lebanon Turnpike in his direction. He canceled his orders that Breckinridge send reinforcements across the river, which diluted the effectiveness of the main attack. Sheridan's ammunition ran low, and his division pulled back, which opened a gap that Hardee exploited.

The Union troops regrouped and held the Nashville Pike, supported by reinforcements and massed artillery. Repeated attacks on the left flank of the Union line were repulsed by Col. S brigade in a rocky, 4-acre 16,000 m. Wooded area named "Round Forest" by the locals; it became known as "Hell's Half-Acre".

Sent the 3rd Kentucky to the Round Forest as reinforcements. When he was informed that the 3rd's regimental commander was dead, he decided to take personal command of the defensive position.

He declared that it had to be held, even if it cost the last man we had. Hazen's brigade was the only part of the original Union line to hold. The Union line was stabilized by the strong leadership of Rosecrans and by the rallying of the divisions under Johnson and Davis.

The new line was roughly perpendicular to the original line, in a small half oval with its back to the river. Bragg planned to attack the Union left, a portion of the oval line facing southeast, manned by Hazen's brigade. The only troops available for such an assault were Breckinridge's, and Bragg ordered him to cross the river, but Breckinridge moved slowly. Breckinridge's first two brigades assaulted Hazen in piecemeal attacks and suffered heavy repulses.

Two more brigades arrived, and they were sent in, reinforced by other elements of Polk's corps. The attack failed a second time.

Thomas responded with a limited counterattack that cleared his front. December 31, 4:00 p. Bragg's plan had had a fundamental flaw: although his objective was to cut Rosecrans's line of communication (the Nashville Pike), his attack drove the Union defenders to concentrate at that point. Bragg's biographer, Grady McWhiney, observed.

Unless the Union army collapsed at the first onslaught, it would be pushed back into a tighter and stronger defensive position as the battle continued, while the Confederate forces would gradually lose momentum, become disorganized, and grow weaker. But the Confederates would inevitably unwind like a ball of string as they advanced. That night Rosecrans held a council of war.

To decide what to do. Some of his generals felt that the Union army had been defeated and recommended a retreat before they were entirely cut off. Rosecrans opposed this view and was strongly supported by Thomas and Crittenden. Thomas has been quoted by different sources in the council meeting as saying either "This army does not retreat" or There's no better place to die. The decision was made to stand and fight, and as the Union line was reinforced, the morale of the soldiers rose.

On the Confederate side, Bragg was certain that he had won a victory. Although he had suffered 9,000 casualties, he was convinced that the large number of captured Union soldiers meant that Rosecrans had lost considerably more. The Confederate army began digging in, facing the Union line. Bragg sent a telegram to Richmond. Before he went to bed: The enemy has yielded his strong position and is falling back. We occupy [the] whole field and shall follow him. God has granted us a happy New Year. January 2, 4:00 p. January 2, 4:45 p. On January 1, 1863, Rosecrans revived his original plan and ordered Van Cleve's division commanded by Col. Samuel Beatty following Van Cleve's wounding the previous day to cross the river and occupy the heights there, protecting two river crossing sites and providing a good platform for artillery.

But the day was relatively quiet as both armies observed New Year's Day. By resting and tending to their wounded.

Polk launched two probes of the Union line, one against Thomas, the other against Sheridan, to little effect. In the rear, Wheeler's cavalry continued to harass the Union line of communication on the turnpike back to Nashville. Convoys of wounded had to travel under heavy escort to be protected from the cavalry, and Wheeler interpreted these movements as preparations for a retreat, and he reported such to Bragg.

Buoyed by his sense that he had won the battle, Bragg was content to wait for Rosecrans to retreat. On January 2, Bragg directed Breckinridge's troops to attack Beatty's division, which was occupying the hill on the east side of the river. Breckinridge initially protested that the assault would be suicidal but eventually agreed and attacked with determination. The Union troops were pushed back across McFadden Ford. But the Confederate charge ran into heavy fire from massed Union artillery across the river, commanded by Crittenden's artillery chief, Capt.

Mendenhall deployed his guns perfectly45 arrayed hub-to-hub on the ridge overlooking McFadden's Ford and 12 more guns about a mile to the southwest, which could provide enfilading fire, completely commanding the opposite bank and heights beyondand saved the day for Rosecrans. The Confederate attack stalled, having suffered over 1,800 casualties in less than an hour. A Union division under the command of James S. (Thomas's wing) led a counterattack at 4:45 p. And the Confederate troops retreated.

Breckinridge was devastated by the disaster. He lost nearly one third of his Kentucky troops Hanson's. Brigade, also known as the Orphan Brigade. Because it could not return to Union-occupied Kentucky. As he rode among the survivors, he cried out repeatedly, My poor Orphans! On the morning of January 3, a large supply train and reinforced infantry brigade led by Brig. Wheeler's cavalry attempted to capture the ammunition train that followed it but was repulsed. Late that evening, Thomas attacked the center of the Confederate line with two regiments in reaction to constant enemy sharpshooting against troops in his division under Lovell H.

Thomas drove the Confederates from their entrenchments, taking about 30 prisoners. Despite this action, the main battle is generally accepted to have ended on January 2.

Bragg knew that Rosecrans was not likely to retreat and would continue to receive reinforcementsthe Confederates had only about 20,000 men ready to resume a battle and intelligence reports convinced Bragg that Rosecrans would soon have 70,000and he knew that the miserable weather of freezing rain could raise the river enough to split his army. On January 3, he withdrew through Murfreesboro and began a retreat to Tullahoma, Tennessee.

36 miles (58 km) to the south. Rosecrans occupied Murfreesboro on January 5, but made no attempt to pursue Bragg. Rosecrans was quoted after the battle as saying, Bragg's a good dog, but Hold Fast's a better.

Just as at Perryville, Bragg seemed to change under stress from a bold and aggressive attacker to a hesitant and cautious retreater. He had, of course, sound reasons for withdrawing from Murfreesboro. His principal subordinates advised him to retreat.

He had lost nearly 30% of his men in the recent battles; if forced to fight again without some rest, his army might disintegrate. But his decision to retreat allowed his enemies to charge that once again Bragg had lost his nerve. Bragg's biographer, Grady McWhiney. Total casualties in the battle were 24,645: 12,906 on the Union side and 11,739 for the Confederates. Considering that only about 76,400 men were engaged.

This was the highest percentage of killed and wounded of any major battle in the Civil War, higher in absolute numbers than the infamous bloodbaths at Shiloh. Four brigadier generals were killed or mortally wounded: Confederate James E.

The battle was tactically inconclusive. Bragg received almost universal scorn from his Confederate military colleagues; only the support of Joseph E. S inability to find a suitable replacement saved his command. The battle was very important to Union morale, as evidenced by Abraham Lincoln.

S letter to General Rosecrans: You gave us a hard-earned victory, which had there been a defeat instead, the nation could scarcely have lived over. The Confederate threat to Kentucky and Middle Tennessee had been nullified, and Nashville was secure as a major Union supply base for the rest of the war. Rosecrans spent five and a half months reinforcing Murfreesboro.

The massive earthenworks Fort Rosecrans. Was built there and served as a supply depot for the remainder of the war.

The next major operation, the Tullahoma Campaign. Did not come until June, when Rosecrans finally moved his army against Bragg.

Cannon in the late afternoon sun. 728.41 acres (294.78 ha). Part of the site of the Battle of Stones River and Fort Rosecrans is now Stones River National Battlefield. It contains the nation's oldest intact Civil War monument, erected by William Hazen's brigade at Hell's Half Acre. The 600 acre (2.4 km²) National Battlefield includes Stones River National Cemetery, established in 1865, with more than 6,000 Union graves.

For other people named Joseph Wheeler, see Joseph Wheeler (disambiguation). Wheeler dressed as a Confederate general in the 1860s. March 4, 1885 April 20, 1900. January 15, 1883 March 3, 1883. March 4, 1881 June 3, 1882.

January 25, 1906 (aged 69) New York City. Fightin' Joe, Little Joe, the War Child. Joseph "Fighting Joe" Wheeler (September 10, 1836 January 25, 1906) was an American. He has the rare distinction of serving as a general. During wartime for two opposing forces: first as a noted cavalry.

General in the Confederate States Army. In the 1860s during the American Civil War. And later as a general in the United States Army. During both theishAmerican War.

Near the turn of the twentieth century. For much of the Civil War he served as the senior cavalry general in the Army of Tennessee. And fought in most of its battles in the Western Theater. Between the Civil War and theishAmerican War, Wheeler served multiple terms as a United States Representative.

From the state of Alabama. Ancestry, Joseph Wheeler was born near Augusta. And spent most of his early life growing up with relatives in Connecticut.

His parents were Joseph Wheeler and Julia Knox Hull Wheeler. He was the grandson of Brigadier General William Hull. A veteran of the American Revolution.

Who was court-martialed for surrendering at Detroit early in the War of 1812. Despite his northern upbringing, he was appointed to the United States Military Academy.

From the state of Georgia and always considered himself a Georgian and Southerner. Wheeler entered West Point in July 1854, barely meeting the height requirement at the time for entry. He graduated on July 1, 1859, placing 19th out of 22 cadets, and was commissioned a brevet. And upon completion was transferred on June 26, 1860, to the Regiment of Mounted Rifles. Stationed in the New Mexico Territory.

It was while stationed in New Mexico and fighting in a skirmish with Indians. That Joseph Wheeler picked up the nickname Fighting Joe.

On September 1, 1860, he was promoted to the rank of second lieutenant. At the start of the Civil War, Wheeler entered the Confederate Army. On March 16 as a first lieutenant. Serving in the Georgia state militia artillery, and then was assigned to Fort Barrancas. His resignation from the U. Army was accepted on April 22, 1861. He was ordered to Huntsville. To take command of the newly formed 19th Alabama Infantry Regiment. And was promoted to colonel. Wheeler and the 19th Alabama fought well under Bragg at the Battle of Shiloh. During the Siege of Corinth.

In April and May, Wheeler's men on picket duty clashed repeatedly with Union patrols. Serving as acting brigade commander, Wheeler burned the bridges over the Tuscumbia River. To cover the Confederate withdrawal to Tupelo, Mississippi.

Wheeler transferred to the cavalry branch and commanded the 2nd Cavalry Brigade of the Left Wing in the Army of Mississippi. Wheeler aggressively maintained contact with the enemy. He began to suffer from poor relations with the Confederacy's arguably greatest cavalryman, Nathan Bedford Forrest. When Bragg reassigned most of Forrest's men to Wheeler, sending Forrest to Murfreesboro. To recruit a new brigade.

Wheeler fought at the Battle of Perryville. In October and after the fight performed an excellent rearguard action protecting the army's withdrawal. He was promoted to brigadier general. On October 30 and led the cavalry belonging to the Second Corps.

Of the Army of Tennessee. During action at La Vergne, Tennessee. On November 27, Wheeler was wounded by an artillery shell that exploded near him. In December 1862, the Union Army of the Cumberland. Began to advance from Nashville.

Against Bragg's army and Wheeler, now commanding all of the Army of Tennessee's cavalry, skirmished aggressively to delay their advance. He drove into the rear of the Union army, destroying hundreds of wagons and capturing more than 700 prisoners. After the Battle of Stones River.

As Bragg's army withdrew to the Duck River. Line, Wheeler struck the Union supply lines at Harpeth Shoals on January 1213, burning three steamboats and capturing more than 400 prisoners. Bragg recommended that Wheeler be promoted as a "just reward". And he became a major general. Wheeler led the army's Cavalry Corps from January to November 24, then again from December to November 15, 1864.

For his actions on January 1213, 1863, Wheeler and his troopers received the Thanks of the Confederate Congress. In February, Wheeler and Forrest attacked Fort Donelson. But they were repulsed by the small Union garrison. Forrest angrily told Wheeler Tell [General Bragg] that I will be in my coffin before I will fight again under your command. Bragg dealt with this rivalry in the Tullahoma Campaign.

By assigning Wheeler to guard the army's right flank while Forrest guarded the left. A Union cavalry advance on Shelbyville. On June 27 trapped Wheeler and 50 of his men on the north side of the Duck River, forcing Wheeler to plunge his horse over a 15-foot embankment and escape through the rain-swollen river. Joseph Wheeler during the Civil War. Wheeler and his troopers guarded the army's left flank at Chickamauga. In September 1863, and after the routed Union Army collected in Chattanooga. Bragg sent Wheeler's men into central Tennessee to destroy railroads and Federal supply lines in a major raid.

On October 2 his raid at Anderson's Cross Roads (also known as Powell's Crossroads) destroyed more than 700 Union supply wagons, tightening the Confederates siege on Chattanooga. Pursued by his Union counterparts, Wheeler advanced to McMinnville and captured its 600-man garrison. There were more actions at Murfreesboro and Farmington, but by October 9 Wheeler had safely crossed the Tennessee River at Muscle Shoals, Alabama. The extensive raid caused the mounted arm of the army to miss the battles for Chattanooga. Wheeler covered Bragg's retreat from Chattanooga following the Union breakthrough at Missionary Ridge.

On November 25 and received a wound in his foot as his cavalry and Maj. S infantry fought at the Battle of Ringgold Gap. Wheeler and his men also supported Lt. S ultimately unsuccessful efforts during the Knoxville Campaign. From November 4 to December 23, 1863. Wheeler's cavalry corps screened the flanks of the Army of Tennessee as Gen. Drew back from several positions toward Atlanta. In July, Sherman sent two large cavalry columns to destroy the railroads supplying the defenders of Atlanta. With fewer than 5,000 cavalrymen, Wheeler defeated the enemy raids, resulting in the capture of one of the two commanding generals, Maj. (the highest ranking Union prisoner of war).

In August, Wheeler's corps crossed the Chattahoochee River. In an attempt to destroy the railroad Sherman was using to supply his force from Chattanooga. Wheeler's men captured the town of Dalton. But he was unable to defeat the Union garrison, which was protected in a nearby fort.

Wheeler then took his men into East Tennessee, crossing the Tennessee River above Knoxville. His raid continued to the west, causing minor interruptions in the Nashville and Chattanooga Railroad.

And then continued south through Franklin. Until he recrossed the Tennessee at Tuscumbia. Wheeler's raid was described by historian Ed Bearss. As a "Confederate disaster" because it caused minimal damage to the Union while denying Gen.

Now in command of the Army of Tennessee, the direct support of his cavalry arm. Without accurate intelligence of Sherman's dispositions, Hood was beaten at Jonesborough.

And forced to evacuate Atlanta. Wheeler rendezvoused with Hood's army in early October after destroying the railroad bridge at Resaca. In late 1864, Wheeler's cavalry did not accompany Hood on his FranklinNashville Campaign. Back into Tennessee and was virtually the only effective Confederate force to oppose Sherman's March to the Sea. However, his resistance to Sherman did little to comfort Georgia civilians, and lax discipline within his command caused great dissatisfaction.

Was quoted as saying, I hope to God he will never get back to Georgia. Wrote that the whole of Georgia is full of bitter complaints of Wheeler's cavalry. Wheeler and his men continued to attempt to stop Sherman in the 1865 Carolinas Campaign.

He defeated a Union cavalry force under Brig. In South Carolina at the Battle of Aiken. He was replaced as cavalry chief by Lt. And fought under him at the Battle of Bentonville.

While attempting to cover Confederate President. S flight south and west in May, Wheeler was captured at Conyer's Station. He had intended to reach the Trans-Mississippi and Gen. Still resisting out west, and had with him three officers from his staff and 11 privates when he was taken.

Wheeler was imprisoned for two months, first at Fort Monroe. And then in solitary confinement at Fort Delaware. Where he was paroled on June 8. During his career in the Confederate States Army, Wheeler was wounded three times, lost 36 staff officers to combat, and a total of 16 horses were shot from under him.

Warner believed that Wheeler's actions leading cavalry in the conflict were second only to those of Bedford Forrest. Wheeler's former residence in Washington, D. After the war, Wheeler became a planter and a lawyer near Courtland, Alabama.

Where he married and raised a family. In an area now known as Wheeler, Alabama. Is a historic site owned by the Alabama Historical Commission. In 1880, Wheeler was elected from Alabama as a Democrat.

To the United States House of Representatives. Contested the election, and after a contentious legal battle which lasted over a year, Lowe was declared the winner and assumed the seat on June 3, 1882. Lowe, however, served only four months before dying of tuberculosis. Wheeler won a special election to return and serve out the remaining weeks of the term.

Wheeler supported the election of Luke Pryor. In 1882 and did not run for reelection, but was elected again in 1884, and re-elected to seven subsequent terms before resigning in 1900. While in Congress, Wheeler strove to heal the breach between the North and the South, and championed economic policies that would help rebuild the Southern states. Staff of the 1st US Volunteer Regiment, the "Rough Riders" in Tampa Lt. Is on the right, Leonard Wood.

Is next to him and former Civil War Confederate general Joseph Wheeler is next to Wood. Taylor MacDonald is on the far left and Major Alexander Oswald Brodie. In 1898, Wheeler, now aged 61, volunteered for theishAmerican War. Receiving an appointment to major general.

He assumed command of the cavalry division, which included Theodore Roosevelt. And was nominally second-in-command of the V Corps. And was charged with scouting for the U. Advance by General William Rufus Shafter. Overall commander of V Corps.

He was ordered not to engage the enemy on his own until the American troop disembarkation had been completed. Approaching Las Guasimas de Sevilla on June 24, American reports suggested theiards were digging in with a field gun; however, Cuban scouts contradicted these, revealing theiards were preparing to abandon their position.

In fact, theish troops at the position had received orders to fall back on Santiago. Wheeler requested the assistance of the attached Cuban forces in an immediate attack, but their commander, Col. Wheeler decided to attack anyway, rushing his men forward with two guns to the front, with Colonel Young's brigade leading the advance against theish columns in what came to be called the Battle of Las Guasimas.

The first major engagement of the war. During the excitement of the battle, Wheeler supposedly called out Let's go, boys! We've got the damn Yankees.

Wheeler's forces moved to encircle theiards' first battle line, assaulting its front and right flank, but were repulsed. During a pause in the fighting, both sides reinforced their positions. Theiards sent forward 2 companies of the San Fernando Battalion , along with the artillery. After halting the American advance, theish resumed their ongoing withdrawal towards Santiago's outer defenses according to their original plans.

The battle had cost U. Forces 17 dead and 52 wounded, whileish forces suffered seven dead and seven wounded. Wheeler fell seriously ill during the campaign and turned over command of the division to Brig. Wheeler was still incapacitated in July when the Battle of San Juan Hill. Being the senior officer present at the front he first issued orders to the 1st Division, under Jacob F.

Before returning to his own command. Upon taking the heights, Wheeler assured General William R. That the position could be held against a possible counterattack. He led the division through the Siege of Santiago. And was a senior member of the peace commission.

Wheeler's youngest son died shortly after his return from serving in Cuba; he drowned while swimming in the ocean. When back in the United States, Wheeler commanded the convalescent camp of the army at Montauk Point. Now a state park in New York. Wheeler sailed for the Philippines. To fight in the PhilippineAmerican War.

He commanded the First Brigade in Arthur MacArthur. S Second Division during the PhilippineAmerican War until January 1900. During this period, Wheeler was mustered out of the volunteer service and commissioned a brigadier general.

Both on June 16, 1900. After hostilities he commanded the Department of the Lakes. Until his retirement on September 10, 1900, and moved to New York. Supposedly while serving in the Philippines, Wheeler encountered an infantryman who was complaining about the heat and being tired. Wheeler promptly dismounted, took the man's rifle and pack, told him to mount his horse, and marched the rest of the way with the infantry.

Wheeler was the author of several books on military history and strategy, as well as about civil subjects. His first was A Revised System of Cavalry Tactics, for the Use of the Cavalry and Mounted Infantry, C.

In 1863, a manual that saw use by the Confederacy. His other works include: Fitz-John Porter in 1883, The Santiago Campaign in 1898, Confederate Military History: Alabama in 1899, and Report on the Island of Guam in 1900.

Wheeler also co-wrote several more books throughout the rest of his life, the last of which, The New America and the Far East: A Pictureque and Historic Description of These Land and Peoples , was published in 1907, after his death. Wheeler also appeared in an early film called Surrender of General Toral. (1898) with William Rufus Shafter. While attending the hundredth anniversary celebration of the U. Military Academy (West Point, New York) in 1902, Wheeler approached the old West Point hotel, where his Confederate comrades James Longstreet.

Were seated on the porch. At the festivities Wheeler wore his dress uniform of his most recent rank, that of a general in the U. Longstreet recognized him coming near, and reportedly said, Joe, I hope that Almighty God takes me before he does you, for I want to be within the gates of hell to hear Jubal Early. Cuss you in the blue uniform.

Longstreet did in fact predecease Wheeler, dying in January 1904. General Wheeler was a member of the District of Columbia Society of the Sons of the American Revolution. (joined in 1898) and the Society of Colonial Wars.

After long illness, Wheeler died in Brooklyn. On January 25, 1906, at the age of 69. He is one of the few former Confederate officers to be buried within Arlington National Cemetery. Wheeler Family and Pond Spring. Pond Spring, the General Joe Wheeler Home, is located in Northwest Alabama.

Currently owned by the Alabama Historical Commission, the house is undergoing major restoration and preservation to take it back to the 1920s condition. Joseph Wheeler married into the property which was owned by his wife Daniella b. Daniella had inherited the property when her previous husband, Benjamin Sherrod died. The Sherrods had bought the property from the Hickman family and expanded and added several buildings, including the two story dogtrot log cabin that came to be known as the Sherrod House.

The Wheelers built their own house right next to the Sherrod house and occupied both houses while Daniella and Joe were alive. The men lived in the older Sherrod House, while the women lived in the newer three story Wheeler House. The second floor of the Wheeler House has four bedrooms, one for each daughter, while their governess lived in the 3rd story attic. Daniella occupied a room downstairs, which was equipped with its own door knocker.

The two houses were, and still are, connected outside through a covered walkway. Later on, the upstairs of the Wheeler home was shared by son Joe Jr.

And his daughter Annie until their deaths. Children of Joseph and Daniella Wheeler. Julia, Annie and Lucy Louise Wheeler. (November 24, 1866 - December 25, 1924) The eldest of the Wheeler siblings, Lucy never married.

(July 31, 1868 - April 10, 1955) Annie Wheeler was the second child of the General. She would grow up to volunteer for the American Red Cross. And would follow her father into many different skirmishes and battles. She was known as the "Angel of Santiago" for her work in theishAmerican War. She also served during World War I.

Annie was a well known in many places and held correspondences with many people. She was even presented to the Queen of England.

Annie died in 1955 after suffering an injury after a fall. (August 9, 1869 - March 1871). Died young, little is known about her. (November 27, 1870 - January 6, 1959). (March 23, 1872 - August 6, 1938) The first son, he was known as Joe Jr.

He joined the Army and was stationed at the Washington Barracks D. After training at the Artillery School at Fort Monroe. Then was a Mathematics instructor at West Point before theishAmerican War broke out. At the start of the War, Joe Jr.

Was made an aide on his father's staff and sailed for Cuba in June 1898. The following year he was made a Major. Of the 34th Infantry, US Volunteers and left in September 1899 for the Philippines. He served in many different areas after this, finally retiring as a Colonel. (August 8, 1877 - March 16, 1953) Known as "Carrie, " the youngest Wheeler daughter married Gordon Buck.

(March 7, 1881 - September 7, 1898) Thomas was the youngest of the children. Influenced by both his father and brother, at the age of 16 Thomas chose to enroll at the United States Naval Academy. One year into his training theishAmerican War. Thomas was adamant about participating in the war. Though his father, older brother, and oldest sister were all going themselves, the General refused to help Thomas find a position aboard a warship.

Thomas did not give up, and instead posted a letter to the Secretary of the Navy, John D. Long helped him find a position aboard the USS Columbia. Which would turn out to be Thomas's first and last assignment. It was a very short and easy victory due to theish not showing up. On the 7th of September 1898, Thomas and some friends were surf bathing at Montauk Point.

One of his midshipman friends was pulled under the water and was struggling. In an effort to save his friend, Thomas dove in after him, but despite his efforts both boys drowned. Thomas's body was retrieved and brought to his Alabama home to be buried.

In 1925, the state of Alabama. Donated a bronze statue of Joseph Wheeler.

To the National Statuary Hall Collection. At the United States Capitol.

Additionally, several locations in Alabama are named after Wheeler including Joe Wheeler State Park. And the Wheeler National Wildlife Refuge. Also, Joseph Wheeler High School. A main thoroughfare through west Augusta.

Is named after him as well. Furthermore, Joe Wheeler Electric Cooperative in northwest Alabama also honors him. Near Macon, Georgia (which served as an army base during both World Wars) was named for Wheeler. Wheeler Mountain, just south of Tuscumbia, in northwest Alabama, is named for him and is a foothill of the Appalacchians. Has a street named after him. While preaching a revival meeting in Alabama, Dr. Wheeler's daughter, Annie, and was given a tour of their famous Flower Garden. Price preached a sermon called "God's Flower Garden", inspired by that tour. It became one of his most famous sermons. General Wheeler was a childhood hero of Dr. The City of Derby, Connecticut, where Wheeler grew up as a young lad, named him as one of the first members of its Hall of Fame in 2007. Wheeler was portrayed in the television film Rough Riders. Although Busey is much taller than Wheeler was, and had only a mustache instead of a full beard. The film portrays him as an "unreconstructed" Confederate, and oddly has him cite Bedford Forrest.

(who hated Wheeler) as his "old friend". His son who served on his staff, was renamed William in the film. The young character of Dill in the Harper Lee. Novel To Kill a Mockingbird.

Attempts to impress his new friends by claiming that Wheeler is his grandfather and left him his cavalry saber. December 31, 1862 (aged 31) Murfreesboro. Joshua Woodrow Sill (December 6, 1831 December 31, 1862), was a career officer in the United States Army.

During the American Civil War. He was killed at the Battle of Stones River. Was later named in his honor.

Sill was born in Chillicothe, Ohio. His early education was obtained largely from his father, who was a lawyer. Sill was appointed in 1849 to the United States Military Academy. During his four years at West Point he ranked among the best scholars and graduated third in his class of 52 cadets. Upon graduation he was commissioned a brevet. And his first assignment was at the Watervliet Arsenal. In 1855 he was assigned to West Point as an instructor. After two years there he was assigned to Pittsburgh Arsenal as an ordnance officer. In May 1858, Sill was sent to Vancouver.

To superintend the building of an arsenal. Difficulties with the British Government prevented the construction of this arsenal and he was reassigned to Watervleit Arsenal. A few months later he was ordered to Fort Leavenworth. But resigned his commission in January 1861.

He then taught mathematics and civil engineering in the Brooklyn Collegiate and Polytechnic Institute. Following the bombardment of Fort Sumter, Sill resigned his teaching position and offered his services to the Governor of Ohio, who appointed him Assistant Adjutant General of the State in May 1861. Here he was occupied in the organization of the Ohio forces. In August 1861 he was commissioned colonel. Of the 33rd Ohio Infantry.

In the Eastern Kentucky expedition. He was then assigned as a brigade.

S division of the Army of the Ohio. He was promoted to the rank of brigadier general on July 16, 1862. Shortly thereafter, Sill was elevated to command of a division, though was soon reassigned to command a brigade in Maj. S division of the now-named Army of the Cumberland. Sill took part in the bloodiest battle of the Civil War (in terms of percentage of casualties on both sides), the Battle of Stones River. On the first day of battle, while leading his men forward, he was killed by rifle fire. On the eve of the battle, Sill had been in conference with his commander, General Sheridan. When the conference adjourned and the attendees began to disperse, Sill and Sheridan mistakenly put on each other's coats. Sill was thus wearing Sheridan's coat at the time he was killed. Sill's body was found by Confederate. Troops, who buried it in a battlefield cemetery near the scene of his death. Sill was later interred at Grandview Cemetery, Chillicothe. An epitaph from one of Sill's officers stated that No man in the entire army, I believe, was so much admired, respected, and beloved by inferiors as well as superiors in rank as was General Sill. In 1869, Sill's West Point classmate and division commander, General Philip H. Officially established a military post in the Wichita Mountains of Oklahoma. Sheridan named the military post in memory of Sill. Is the largest field artillery complex in the world. For the Christian educator and pastor, see Edward Norris Kirk.

February 29, 1828 Jefferson County. July 21, 1863 (aged 35) Chicago. Edward Needles Kirk (February 29, 1828 July 21, 1863) was a Quaker. School teacher, attorney, and then a brigadier general.

Kirk was born in rural Jefferson County, Ohio. He was educated at the Friends' Academy in Mount Pleasant, Ohio.

He studied law for two years in Cadiz, Ohio. And passed the bar exam in 1853.

He established a practice in Baltimore, Maryland. In the spring of 1854, he relocated to Sterling, Illinois. He married Marcella Cameron in Philadelphia. The couple would have two sons. In 1857, with his business quickly prospering, Kirk built a large mansion.

Now known as the Paul W. At the start of the Civil War, Kirk recruited and organized the 34th Illinois Infantry.

He saw duty in Kentucky. During the Battle of Shiloh. He and his men participated in parts of the Kentucky Campaign. He was appointed as a brigadier general dating from November 29, 1862. A little more than a month later, he was severely wounded in the hip during the Battle of Stones River.

He was transported to a field hospital. And then eventually taken to the Tremont House. Where he died several months later. He is buried in the Rosehill Cemetery and Mausoleum. Was named in his memory.

Kirk, became one of Pennsylvania's leading dental surgeons and medical educators. Brigadier General August Willich, ca. Johann August Ernst von Willich.

January 22, 1878 (aged 67) St. 1828 - 1846 1861 - 1865. Battle of Rowlett's Station. August Willich (November 19, 1810 January 22, 1878), born Johann August Ernst von Willich , was a military officer in the Prussian Army. And a leading early proponent of communism.

In 1847 he discarded his title of nobility. He later immigrated to the United States and became a general in the Union Army. Willich was born in Braunsberg. Died when Willich was three years old. With an elder brother, Willich found a home in the family of Friedrich Schleiermacher. A theologian, whose wife was a distant relative. He received a military education at Potsdam and Berlin. Initially an artillery officer in the Prussian military 1. He resigned from the army in 1846 as a convinced republican. Willich was not the only republican emerging from that regiment.

One of his fellow officers in Münster and Wesel was Fritz Anneke. Who also was to become a revolutionary commander in Palatinate 1849 and later a commander in the Union Army.

Willich tendered his resignation from the army in a letter written in such terms that, instead of its being accepted, he was arrested and tried by a court-martial. He was acquitted and was permitted to resign. With Schapper, he was the leader of the left fraction of the Communist League. He took an active part in the Revolutions of 184849.

In 1849, he was leader of a Free Corps. Among his revolutionary friends were Franz Sigel. After the suppression of the uprising, he emigrated to London via Switzerland.

He had learned the trade of a carpenter while in England, and so earned his livelihood. In 1850, when the League of Communists split, he (together with Schapper) was leader of the anti- Karl Marx. In London, Willich became an associate of the French revolutionary and political exile Emmanuel Barthélemy. Willich and Bartholemy plotted to kill Karl Marx for being too conservative.

Willich publicly insulted Marx and challenged him to a duel. Which Marx refused to fight. Instead Willich was challenged by a young associate of Marx, Conrad Schramm. The pistol duel was fought in Belgium with Bartholemy acting as Willich's second.

Schramm was wounded but survived the encounter. Bartholemy was hanged in London in 1855 after shooting and killing his employer and another man. Coming to the United States in 1853, Willich first found employment at his trade in the Brooklyn Navy Yard. Here his attainments in mathematics and other scientific studies were soon discovered, and he found more congenial work in the coastal survey.

In 1858, he was induced to go to Cincinnati as editor of the German Republican , a German-language free labor newspaper, which he continued until the opening of the Civil War. Willich became known as one of the "Ohio Hegelians" followers of German philosopher Georg Wilhelm Friedrich Hegel. , along with John Bernhard Stallo. See also: Prussia in the American Civil War.

With the outbreak of the Civil War in early 1861, Willich actively recruited German immigrants in the southwestern Ohio region. He joined the 9th Ohio Infantry.

("Die Neuner") as regimental adjutant with the rank of first lieutenant. And was promoted to major. In August of that year. He served in western Virginia. Seeing action at the Battle of Rich Mountain.

As well as at Carnifex Ferry. Of the 32nd Indiana, also called the First German, an all-German regiment. At the request of Governor Oliver P. He assumed command of the Thirty-second Indiana.

Willich drilled his regiment, in German, to a high degree of professionalism. It made a favorable impression wherever it served. An innovative officer, he suggested construction of special wagons convertible to pontoon boats by removal of wheels. To speed up troop movement and assure combat condition of troops upon arrival on the battlefield, he recommended wagon transport of troops. His superiors rejected both ideas.

Yet, Willich's concern for his men's well-being earned him the nickname "Papa". When possible, he ordered bakery ovens constructed so that troops would have fresh bread. The 32nd gained nationwide recognition for its stand against Confederate forces at Rowlett's Station. A detachment of 500 men under Lt. Henry von Trebra fought off 1,300 men of Terry's Texas Rangers.

And infantry under General Hindman. The 32nd formed the "hollow square", and drove the attackers back, losing 10 troopers and 22 wounded, but killing 33 of the enemy, including Col. Terry, and wounding fifty others. The 32nd saw action at Shiloh. On the second day, during which Col.

When his troops became unsteady under fire, he stood before them, his back to the enemy, and conducted the regiment through the manual of arms. He had the regimental band play "La Marseillaise", the anthem for all republican movements in Europe.

Recovering its stability, the 32nd launched a bayonet attack. Willich was promoted to brigade command.

The 32nd remained in his brigade, under command of von Trebra and, later, Frank Erdelmeyer. Rewarded by a promotion to brigadier general. In July 1862, Willich fought at the Battle of Perryville. He commanded the 1st Brigade, 2nd Division, XIV Corps. In December at the Battle of Stones River.

He was captured by the Confederates. When his horse was shot out from under him. He was sent to Libby Prison. For four months, but was paroled and exchanged in May 1863.

Returning to the federal army later that year, he was assigned to command of the 1st Brigade, 2nd Division, XX Corps. And served with distinction during the Tullahoma Campaign. Where his brigade played a key role in holding Liberty Gap. At the Battle of Chickamauga. And saw additional action during the Chattanooga Campaign. During the Siege of Chattanooga.

The 32nd played a conspicuous part, as Willich's Brigade captured Orchard Knob. Willich ordered the assault up Missionary Ridge. The 32nd Indiana and the 6th Ohio were the first to reach the top. The 32nd participated in the Atlanta Campaign with General William Tecumseh Sherman.

Before the fall of Atlanta. The 32nd was pulled back and sent via Nashville, Tennessee to Indianapolis. En route, the 32nd was assigned to counter Confederate guerrilla forces in Kentucky. Willich who had been wounded at Resaca, Georgia. Was promoted to brevet major general and put in command of Cincinnati.

Due to the anti-German sentiment in the nation, and the army in particular, veterans of the 32nd did not re-enlist. Nor did most other all-German regiments. It rankled the German-American soldier that General Joseph Hooker had blamed German troops of the 11th Corps for his defeat at Chancellorsville. Labeled the 11th Corps Dutch cowards.

Actually, of the corps's 12,000 men, 7,000 were American. Of the remaining 5,000, only one-third were German, these having been the units offering the stiffest resistance to the Confederate attack made by Stonewall Jackson.

The three-year veterans were mustered out on September 7, 1864. The remaining 200 replacements whose terms had not expired were organized into a battalion of four companies under Hans Blume. At war's end they were stationed with General Sheridan's.

Occupation forces in central Texas. In 1864, Willich led his brigade through Tennessee. He suffered a severe wound in the Battle of Resaca. That forced him to leave the field.

For the rest of the war, he served in various administrative roles, commanding Union posts in Cincinnati, Covington, Kentucky. Of US Volunteers on October 21, 1865, then resigned from the army to return to civilian life. He held a series of responsible positions, including auditor of Hamilton County. His home at 1419 Main Street still stands in Cincinnati.

His age, health, and communist views caused him to be refused, however. He stayed in Germany long enough to receive a college degree in philosophy, graduating from the University of Berlin. At the age of sixty. Returning to the United States, he died in St.

And was buried there in Elmgrove Cemetery. In his concluding note to the Revelations Concerning the Communist Trial in Cologne.

Marx wrote, "In the Civil War in North America, Willich showed that he is more than a visionary". March 4, 1881 March 8, 1886. November 21, 1831 South Bend. March 8, 1886 (aged 54) Washington, D.

John Franklin Miller (November 21, 1831 March 8, 1886) was a lawyer, businessman, and general in the Union Army. In the United States Senate. From 1881 until his death.

He was notorious for several bills against the Chinese immigrants. Miller was born in South Bend, Indiana. His nephew, also named John Franklin Miller. Was later a congressman from Washington.

Both sometimes went by John F. Miller was educated in South Bend, Chicago.

And in Ballston Spa, New York. Where he received a law degree in 1852 from the New York State and National Law School. He was admitted to the bar and established a law practice in South Bend, but moved the next year to Napa, California. There, he continued his career as a lawyer, as well as becoming the county treasurer. Miller was elected to the Indiana State Senate. And the outbreak of the Civil War, Miller joined the Union Army.

On August 27, 1861, Governor Oliver P. Of the 29th Indiana Infantry. After training, the regiment was assigned to Kirk's. Miller saw action on the second day of the Battle of Shiloh.

As well as during the subsequent Siege of Corinth. Miller led his regiment through northern Alabama.

During the Battle of Stones River. On the second day of the battle, Miller spearheaded the Federal counterattack across Stones River. During this charge Miller was wounded in the neck. Miller commanded a brigade under General McCook in the XX Corps.

He was severely wounded, losing his left eye, in a minor fight at Liberty Gap. On June 27, 1863, and was out of action for nearly a year while he recuperated.

Miller was promoted to brigadier general. April 10, 1864, retroactive to January 5.

In May 1864, he was assigned to administrative duty as commander of the garrison at Nashville, Tennessee. For his services at that battle, Miller was brevetted. Miller declined a commission as a colonel in the Regular Army. And resigned from the Volunteers on September 29, 1865, to move back to California when President Andrew Johnson.

A post he held until 1869 when he declined another term. Which controlled the fur industry in newly acquired Pribilof Islands.

At the time Miller bought this holding, it was entirely wilderness. Grant and the State of California by a deed signed by Governor Newton Booth.

Deeds conveying the various parcels to the General were dated in the years 1869, 1872, 1873 and 1881. Miller as one of the state's two Senators. He was an outspoken proponent of several bills to limit the influx and influence of Chinese immigrants. He expressed his sentiments about Chinese immigration or immigrants during passage of the 1882 Exclusion Act: One complete man, the product of free institutions and high civilization, is worth more to the world than hundreds of barbarians.

Upon what other theory can we justify the almost complete extermination of the Indians, the original possessor of all these States? I believe that one such man as Newton, or Franklin, or Lincoln, glorifies the creator of the world and benefits mankind more than all the Chinese who have lived, struggled and died on the banks of the Hoang Ho. He was chairman, Committee to Revise the Laws of the United States (Forty-seventh Congress) and served on the Committee on Foreign Relations (Forty-ninth Congress). Senator Miller died in Washington, D. He was initially buried in the Laurel Hill Cemetery in San Francisco, but was reinterred in the Arlington National Cemetery.

On May 5, 1913, alongside his wife Mary Wickerham (Chess) Miller, his daughter, and his son-in-law, Rear Admiral Richardson Clover. David Maxwell Dunn served in the House in 1855. 28, 1818, in Jefferson County, to Williamson Dunn.

He attended Hanover College and graduated with a law degree. He was a director of the Logansport and Pacific Railroad and commissioner of the Wabash and Erie Canal. In 1846, he joined 1st Regiment of the Indiana Volunteers and fought in the Mexican War, where he advanced to 2nd lieutenant. Later he joined the 9th Regiment Indiana Volunteers and fought in the Civil War rising to lieutenant colonel. Consul to Prince Edward Island for 12 years and U. Enlisted as a Lieutenant Colonel on 26 April 1861. Commission in Company S, 9th Infantry Regiment Indiana on 26 Apr 1861. Mustered Out Company S, 9th Infantry Regiment Indiana on 29 Jul 1861 at Indianapolis, IN. Commission in Company S, 29th Infantry Regiment Indiana on 30 Aug 1861.

Promoted to Full Lieutenant Colonel (As of 29th IN Inf) on 30 Aug 1861. Promoted to Full Colonel (Not Mustered) on 1 Mar 1864. Mustered Out Company S, 29th Infantry Regiment Indiana on 27 Sep 1864. The Franklin Democrat, Friday, August 30, 1889, Volume XXX, Number 10, page 1, column 4 The recent death of David M.

Dunn recalls to the mind of old settlers the time when he left Logansport as the second lieutenant of the Cass county volunteers bound for the Mexican war. This was forty three years ago.

There were ninety-two men in the organization, and they were carried in thirty-three wagons to Indianapolis, and then to Edinburg, where they boarded the then only railroad in the state and were taken to Madison. The remainder of the trip to Mexico was made by boat. Dunn removes the last commissioned officer of the company. Inscription: Lieut Col 29 Ind Inf Mexican War Civil War. Logansport Cass County Indiana, USA Plot: Burial: Oak Hill Cemetery, D.

Add a map to your own listings. The item "1864 CIVIL WAR Journal 29TH INDIANA CO C Pvt Silas Long DIARY Handwritten UNION" is in sale since Thursday, September 14, 2017. This item is in the category "Books\Antiquarian & Collectible".

The seller is "mantosilver" and is located in Spencerport, New York. This item can be shipped worldwide.

  • Subject: History
  • Topic: Civil War (1861-65)
  • Binding: Leather
  • Year Printed: 1864
  • Region: North America
  • Country/Region of Manufacture: United States
  • Special Attributes: Inscribed
  • Original/Facsimile: Original

1864 CIVIL WAR Journal 29TH INDIANA CO C Pvt Silas Long DIARY Handwritten UNION